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二甲基亚砜

英文名称:Dimethyl sulfoxide

农药中间体 消炎药物 有机抽提剂
CAS : 67-68-5 精确质量 : 78.01390
分子式 : C2H6OS logP : 0.86040
分子量 : 78.13340 PSA : 36.28000
摩贝参考价:
¥11000.00/ton (天津)
¥10500.00/ton (江苏)
¥11000.00/ton (天津)
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参考价:部分产品价格来源于摩贝行情
频道;部分产品价格基于供应商的报价
进行科学计算所得。

化合物简介

二甲基亚砜(Dimethyl sulfoxide,简称DMSO),是分子式为(CH3)2SO的化学物质。其为一无色液体,并为重要的极性非质子溶剂。它可与许多有机溶剂及水互溶。二甲基亚砜具有极易渗透皮肤的特殊性质,造成使用人员感觉类似牡蛎般的味道。

基本信息

纠错
中文名称:
二甲基亚砜
中文别名:

二甲基亞碸;

二甲亚砜;

DMSO;

英文名称:
Dimethyl sulfoxide
英文别名:

Methane, sulfinylbis-;

(Methylsulfinyl)methane;

CAS号:
67-68-5
分子式:
C2H6OS
分子量:
78.13340
精确质量:
78.01390
PSA:
36.28000
LogP:
0.86040

分析方法

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共找到 37 个分析方法

柱型 活性相 温度 (°C) 保留指数 (I) 参考文献
毛细管柱 Methyl Silicone 100. 780. Huber, Kenndler, et al., 1993
柱型 活性相 温度 (°C) 保留指数 (I) 参考文献
毛细管柱 Methyl Silicone 120. 784. Huber, Kenndler, et al., 1993

物化性质

纠错
外观与性状:
无色液体
密度:
1.100 g/mL at 20 °C
熔点:
18.4 °C
凝固点:
18.4℃
沸点:
189 °C(lit.)
闪点:
192 °F
折射率:
n20/D 1.479(lit.)
稳定性:
Stable. Incompatible with a very wide range of materials, including acid chlorides, strong acids, strong oxidizing agents, strong reducing agents, phosphorus halides, moisture, copper wool + trichloroacetic acid. Reacts violently with a number of materials
储存条件:
Store at RT.
蒸汽压:
0.42 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
蒸汽密度:
2.7 (vs air)

安全信息

纠错
  • 海关编码:29309070
  • WGK Germany:1
  • 危险类别码:R36/37/38
  • 安全说明:S24/25-S37/39-S26
  • RTECS号:PV6210000
  • 危险品标志:Xi

生产方法及用途

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生产方法

二甲基亚砜一般采用二甲硫醚氧化法制得,由于所用的氧化剂和氧化方式不同,因而有不同的生产工艺。
1.甲醇二硫化碳法甲醇和二硫化碳为原料,以γ-Al2O3作催化剂,先合成二甲基硫醚,再与二氧化氮(或硝酸)氧化得二甲基亚砜。
2.双氧水法 以丙酮作缓冲介质,使二甲硫醚与双氧水反应。用该法生产二甲基亚砜成本较高,不适于大规模生产。...

用途

二甲基亚砜广泛用作溶剂和反应试剂,具有很高的选择性抽提能力,可用作烷烃与芳香烃分离的提取溶剂,用于芳烃、丁二烯抽提,特别是在丙烯腈聚合反应中作加工溶剂和抽丝溶剂,作聚氨酯合成及抽丝溶剂,作聚酰胺、氟氯苯胺、聚酰亚胺和聚砜树脂的合成溶剂。在医药工业中二甲基亚砜还可直接作为某些药物的原料及载体,另外,dmso本身有消炎止痛、利尿、镇静等作用,被誉为“万灵药”,常作为止痛药物的活性组分添加于药物中。也可作电容介质、防冻剂、刹车油、稀有金属提取剂等。

合成路线

查看更多 总计:98合成路线
  • 1520-31-6

    二甲基亚磺酰亚胺

  • ~99%

  • 67-68-5

    二甲基亚砜

详细>>
  • 75-18-3

    甲硫醚

  • ~99%

  • 67-68-5

    二甲基亚砜

详细>>
  • 131759-88-1

    Na[trans-RuCl4(DMSO)2]

  • ~97%

  • 131759-93-8

    mer,cis-{RuCl3(2O)2(DMSO)}

  • 67-68-5

    二甲基亚砜

详细>>

上下游产品

上游产品总计:5下游产品总计:5
上游产品 总计:97 查看更多
下游产品 总计:657 查看更多

海关数据

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中国海关编码:

29309070

图谱

核磁图谱
13C NMR : Predict展开
13C NMR : Predict收起

13C NMR : in DMSO-d6展开
13C NMR : in DMSO-d6收起

ppm   Int.  Assign. 
        40.37  1000     1 

13C NMR : in CDCl3展开
13C NMR : in CDCl3收起

ppm   Int.  Assign. 
       40.96  1000      1 

13C NMR : in CDCl3展开
13C NMR : in CDCl3收起

ppm   Int.  Assign. 
        41.06  1000     1 

13C NMR : in CD3OD展开
13C NMR : in CD3OD收起

ppm   Int.  Assign. 
        40.51  1000     1 

13C NMR : in CD3CN展开
13C NMR : in CD3CN收起

ppm   Int.  Assign. 
        41.38  1000     1 

1H NMR : Predict展开
1H NMR : Predict收起

1H NMR : parameter in CDCl3展开
1H NMR : parameter in CDCl3收起

Parameter     ppm  Hz 
      D(A)         2.621 

1H NMR : in DMSO-d6展开
1H NMR : in DMSO-d6收起

Assign.     Shift(ppm) 
     A          2.540 

1H NMR : in CDCl3展开
1H NMR : in CDCl3收起

Assign.     Shift(ppm) 
     A          2.617 

1H NMR : in CD3OD展开
1H NMR : in CD3OD收起

Assign.     Shift(ppm) 
     A          2.651 

1H NMR : in CD3CN展开
1H NMR : in CD3CN收起

Assign.     Shift(ppm) 
     A          2.506 

红外图谱(IR)
IR : liquid film展开
IR : liquid film收起

质谱(MS/Mass)
Mass spectrum (electron ionization)展开
Mass spectrum (electron ionization)收起

拉曼光谱(Raman)
Raman : 4880 A,100M,liquid展开
Raman : 4880 A,100M,liquid收起

更多二甲基亚砜图谱参考资料

毒性

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
PV6210000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Methyl sulfoxide
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
67-68-5
LAST UPDATED :
199710
DATA ITEMS CITED :
86
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C2-H6-O-S
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
78.14
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
OS1&1

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Open irritation test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - man
DOSE/DURATION :
606 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Gastrointestinal - nausea or vomiting Liver - jaundice, other or unclassified
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
14500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - hemorrhage Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - conjunctive irritation
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
40 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
8200 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
12 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay) Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - dyspnea
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
5360 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - tremor Behavioral - muscle weakness Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - dyspnea
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Unreported
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1300 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
7920 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
50 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
2500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
14 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay) Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - hematuria
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
3100 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - hemorrhage Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - conjunctive irritation
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
>10 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
2500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Cardiac - other changes Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - hematuria Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - cat
DOSE/DURATION :
200 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
>11 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
>5500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Bird - chicken
DOSE/DURATION :
12 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - species unspecified
DOSE/DURATION :
21400 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Bird - wild bird species
DOSE/DURATION :
100 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1070 gm/kg/13W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Blood - other changes Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
192 gm/kg/4W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Blood - normocytic anemia Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
6570 mL/kg/2Y-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - effect, not otherwise specified Blood - changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count Biochemical - Metabolism (Intermediary) - other proteins
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
389 gm/kg/17W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - changes in refraction Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - effect, not otherwise specified
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
57600 mg/kg/4W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - hematuria Blood - normocytic anemia Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Primate - monkey
DOSE/DURATION :
4864 gm/kg/78W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Ocular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
250 ug/kg/30D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - effect, not otherwise specified
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - pig
DOSE/DURATION :
4698 mL/kg/58W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - changes in refraction Behavioral - fluid intake
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
59 gm/kg/81W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Skin and Appendages - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
220 gm/kg/82W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Skin and Appendages - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
65340 mg/kg/66W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Blood - leukemia Skin and Appendages - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
66 gm/kg/66W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - tumors Skin and Appendages - tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
56 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-12 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - abortion
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
6600 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 7-15 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
DOSE :
30750 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 8-10 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) Reproductive - Fertility - litter size (e.g. # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
16 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 5-9 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - pre-implantation mortality (e.g. reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
210 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-12 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - Central Nervous System Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
5500 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 10 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
8250 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 10 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
DOSE :
240 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 1-20 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
11 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 7 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - Central Nervous System Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
5500 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 8 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - Central Nervous System Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
4400 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 8 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetal death Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - Central Nervous System
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
DOSE :
2500 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 8 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - Central Nervous System Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - craniofacial (including nose and tongue) Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
DOSE :
2500 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 8 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - other developmental abnormalities
TYPE OF TEST :
Sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction
TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis
TYPE OF TEST :
DNA damage

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis
TEST SYSTEM :
Rodent - hamster Lung
DOSE/DURATION :
1 pph
REFERENCE :
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964- Volume(issue)/page/year: 42,109,1977 *** REVIEWS *** TOXICOLOGY REVIEW ANYAA9 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. (New York Academy of Sciences, 2 E. 63rd St., New York, NY 10021) V.1- 1877- Volume(issue)/page/year: 243,98,1975 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW CRTXB2 CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 1971- Volume(issue)/page/year: 1(1),93,1971 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW ARZNAD Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. (Editio Cantor Verlag, Postfach 1255, W-7960 Aulendorf, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1951- Volume(issue)/page/year: 17,1553,1967 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-RUSSIA:STEL 20 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWITZERLAND:TWA 50 ppm (160 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 80564 No. of Facilities: 476 (estimated) No. of Industries: 11 No. of Occupations: 25 No. of Employees: 22461 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 80564 No. of Facilities: 3507 (estimated) No. of Industries: 29 No. of Occupations: 40 No. of Employees: 44947 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 16837 (estimated)

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