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丙烯酸丁酯

英文名称:Butyl acrylate

农药中间体
CAS : 141-32-2 精确质量 : 128.08400
分子式 : C7H12O2 logP : 1.51570
分子量 : 128.16900 PSA : 26.30000

基本信息

纠错
中文名称:
丙烯酸丁酯
中文别名:

丙烯酸正丁酯;

丙烯酸叔丁酯;

丙烯酸丁酯(BA);

2-丙烯酸丁酯;

正丁基丙烯酸酯;

英文名称:
Butyl acrylate
英文别名:

Butyl propenoate;

acrylic acid butyl ester;

2-Propenoic acid, butyl ester;

Acrylic Acid Butyl Ester;

Butyl acrylate,stabilized;

查看更多英文别名

CAS号:
141-32-2
分子式:
C7H12O2
分子量:
128.16900
精确质量:
128.08400
PSA:
26.30000
LogP:
1.51570

法规信息

中国
危险化学品

物化性质

纠错
外观与性状:
透明无色液体
密度:
0.883 g/mL at 20 °C
熔点:
-69 °C
沸点:
61-63 °C60 mm Hg(lit.)
闪点:
63 °F
折射率:
n20/D 1.410(lit.)
水溶解性:
1.4 g/L (20 ºC)
储存条件:
包装完整、轻装轻卸,库房通风、远离明火、高温、与氧化剂分开存放
蒸汽压:
0.039mmHg at 25°C
蒸汽密度:
>1 (vs air)

安全信息

纠错
  • 包装等级:III
  • 危险类别:3
  • 海关编码:2916129000
  • 危险品运输编码:UN 1993 3/PG 2
  • WGK Germany:2
  • 危险类别码:R10; R36/37/38; R43
  • 安全说明:S16-S25-S37-S61-S9
  • RTECS号:UD3150000
  • 危险品标志:Xi

生产方法及用途

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生产方法

丙烯酸酯的生产方法有丙烯腈水解法,β-丙内酯法、雷佩法和改良雷佩法、氰乙醇法和丙烯直接氧化法。
1.氰乙醇法 以氯乙醇和氰化钠为原料,反应生成氰乙醇、氰乙醇在硫酸存在下水解生成丙烯酸。
2.丙烯腈水解法 由于丙烯腈来源丰富,便发展了用丙烯腈作原料生产丙烯酸酯的方法。现已工业化的方法有Societe Ugine法和Standard Oil Co(O-hio)法。将丙烯腈与硫酸一起加热到90℃,使丙烯腈水解成丙烯酰胺的硫酸盐,硫酸盐进一步酯化生成丙烯酸酯。近年有专利报道,以丙烯腈为原料,采用一步法生产,酯的收率可达95%。 ...

用途

1.丙烯酸及其酯类在工业上得到广泛应用。在使用过程中,往往将丙烯酸酯类聚合成聚合物或共聚物。丙烯酸丁酯(以及甲酯、乙酯、2-乙基己酯)属于软单体,可以与各种硬单体如甲基丙烯酸甲酯、苯乙烯、丙烯腈、乙酸乙烯等,及官能性单体如(甲基)丙烯酸羟乙酯、羟丙酯、缩水甘油酯、(甲基)丙烯酰胺及基衍生物等进行共聚、交联、接枝等,作成200-700多种丙烯酸类树脂产品(主要是乳液型,溶剂型及水溶型的),广泛用作涂料、胶粘剂、腈纶纤维改性、塑料改性、纤维及织物加工、纸张处理剂、皮革加工以及丙烯酸类橡胶等许多方面。
2.用于制造丙烯酸酯溶剂型和乳液型胶黏剂的软单体,可以均聚、共聚及接枝共聚。广泛用于胶黏剂、涂料、塑料改性、纤维加工、纸张浸渍、皮革加工等方面。与醋酸乙烯共聚制造建筑密封胶,可提高韧性和耐水性。作为第二单体和甲基丙烯酸甲酯与SBS接枝可制得初黏力大、粘接强度高的SBS接枝胶黏剂。可与苯乙烯、丙烯腈、乙酸乙烯酯、甲基丙烯酸甲酯等硬单体及丙烯酸羟乙酯、羟丙酯、缩水甘油酯、甲基丙烯酰胺等官能性单体进行共聚制造乳液型、溶剂型及水溶型等各类产品。也可作为溶剂使用。
3.高分子聚合物单体。主要用作纤维、橡胶、塑料、涂料、胶黏剂、纺织助剂,也可用作皮革和纸张的处理剂。 ...

合成路线

查看更多 总计:48合成路线
  • 79-10-7

    丙烯酸

  • 71-36-3

    正丁醇

  • ~99%

  • 141-32-2

    丙烯酸丁酯

详细>>
  • 109-69-3

    1-氯丁烷

  • 871326-06-6

    1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium acrylate

  • ~81%

  • 141-32-2

    丙烯酸丁酯

详细>>
  • 5150-93-6

    4-butoxy-4-oxobutanoic acid

  • ~62%

  • 141-32-2

    丙烯酸丁酯

详细>>

上下游产品

上游产品总计:5下游产品总计:5
上游产品 总计:47 查看更多
下游产品 总计:96 查看更多

MSDS

  • MSDS
纠错
国标编号: 33601
CAS: 141-32-2
中文名称: 丙烯酸正丁酯
英文名称: n-butyl acrylate
别 名: 丙烯酸丁酯
分子式: C7H12O2;CH2CHCOO(CH2)3CH3
分子量: 128. 17
熔 点: -64.6℃ 沸点:145.7?
密 度: 相对密度(水=1)0.89;
蒸汽压: 37℃
溶解性: 不溶于水,可混溶于乙醇、乙醚
稳定性: 稳定
外观与性状: 无色液体
危险标记: 7(易燃液体)
用 途: 用作有机合成中间体、粘合剂、乳化剂

2.对环境的影响:
一、健康危害
侵入途径:吸入、食入、经皮吸收。
健康危害:吸入、口服或经皮肤吸收对身体有害。其蒸气或雾对眼睛、粘膜和呼吸道有刺激作用。中毒表现有烧灼感、咳嗽、喘息、喉炎、气短、头痛、恶心和呕吐。
二、毒理学资料及环境行为
毒性:属低毒类。
急性毒性:LD50900mg/kg(大鼠经口);2000mg/kg(兔经皮);LC5014305mg/m3,4小时(大鼠吸入)
刺激性:家兔经皮开放性刺激试验:10mg(24小时),轻度刺激。家兔经眼:50mg,轻度刺激。
生殖毒性:大鼠吸入最低中毒浓度(TCL0):135ppm(6小时)(孕6~15天), 植入后死亡率升高。
致癌性:IARC致癌性评论:动物可疑阳性,人类无可靠数据。
危险特性:易燃,遇明火、高热或与氧化剂接触,有引起燃烧爆炸的危险。容易自聚,聚合反应随着温度的上升而急骤加剧。若遇高热,可能发生聚合反应,出现大量放热现象,引起容器破裂和爆炸事故。
燃烧(分解)产物:一氧化碳、二氧化碳。

3.现场应急监测方法:
4.实验室监测方法:
气相色谱法(WS/T161-1999,作业场所空气)
空气中微量丙烯酸丁酯和甲基丙烯酸丁酯的鉴定(气相色谱法)[刊俄]/Ozhandzhapanyan A.N.;Puzyan E.A.//ГИГ.caHИT.-1988,(11).-43~45 《分析化学文摘 》1992-1993

5.环境标准:
前苏联 车间空气中有害物质的最高容许浓度 10mg/m3
前苏联(1975) 水体中有害物质最高允许浓度 0.01mg/L
前苏联(1975) 污水排放标准 60mg/L

6.应急处理处置方法:
一、泄漏应急处理
迅速撤离泄漏污染区人员至安全区,并进行隔离,严格限制出入。切断火源。建议应急处理人员戴自给正压式呼吸器,穿消防防护服。尽可能切断泄漏源。防止进入下水道、排洪沟等限制性空间。小量泄漏:用砂土、干燥石灰或苏打灰混合。也可以用不燃性分散剂制成的乳液刷洗,洗液稀释后放入废水系统。大量泄漏:构筑围堤或挖坑收容。用泡沫覆盖,降低蒸气灾害。用防爆泵转移至槽车或专用收集器内,回收或运至废物处理场所处置。
二、防护措施
呼吸系统防护:空气中浓度超标时,应该佩戴直接式防毒面具(半面罩)。必要时,佩戴导管式防毒面具或自给式呼吸器。
眼睛防护:戴化学安全防护眼镜。
身体防护:穿防静电工作服。
手防护:戴防苯耐油手套。
其它:工作现场严禁吸烟。工作毕,淋浴更衣。注意个人清洁卫生。
三、急救措施
皮肤接触:脱去被污染的衣着,用肥皂水和清水彻底冲洗皮肤。
眼睛接触:提起眼睑,用流动清水或生理盐水冲洗。就医。
吸入:迅速脱离现场至空气新鲜处。保持呼吸道通畅。如呼吸困难,给输氧。如呼吸停止,立即进行人工呼吸。就医。
食入:饮足量温水,催吐,就医。
灭火方法:灭火剂:泡沫、干粉、二氧化碳、砂土。用水灭火无效,但可用水保持火场中容器冷却。消防人员必须穿戴全身防火防毒服。遇大火,消防人员须在有防护掩蔽处操作。

海关数据

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中国海关编码:

2916129000

概述:

2916129000 其他丙烯酸酯. 增值税率:17.0% 退税率:9.0% 监管条件:无 最惠国关税:6.5% 普通关税:30.0%

申报要素:

品名, 成分含量, 用途, 丙烯酸、丙烯酸盐或酯应报明包装

Summary:

2916129000 other esters of acrylic acid VAT:17.0% Tax rebate rate:9.0% Supervision conditions:none MFN tariff:6.5% General tariff:30.0%

图谱

核磁图谱
13C NMR : in CDCl3展开
13C NMR : in CDCl3收起

ppm   Int.  Assign. 
      166.19   161      1
      130.21  1000      2
      128.92   800      3
       64.39   888      4
       30.90   829      5
       19.31   741      6
       13.74   634      7 

1H NMR : 90 MHz in CDCl3展开
1H NMR : 90 MHz in CDCl3收起

Assign.     Shift(ppm) 
      A             0.96
      B             1.41
      C             1.65
      D             4.158
      E             5.795
      F             6.108
      G             6.364
     
     J(E,F):9.6 HZ
     J(F,G):16.8 HZ
     J(E,G):2.7 HZ 

红外图谱(IR)
IR : liquid film展开
IR : liquid film收起

IR : CCl4 solution展开
IR : CCl4 solution收起

质谱(MS/Mass)
Mass 展开
Mass 收起

Source Temperature: 240 °C
   Sample Temperature: 190 °C
   RESERVOIR, 75 eV

Mass spectrum (electron ionization)展开
Mass spectrum (electron ionization)收起

拉曼光谱(Raman)
Raman : 4880 A,200 M,liquid展开
Raman : 4880 A,200 M,liquid收起

更多丙烯酸丁酯图谱参考资料

毒性

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
UD3150000
CHEMICAL NAME :
2-Propenoic acid, butyl ester
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
141-32-2
BEILSTEIN REFERENCE NO. :
1749970
LAST UPDATED :
199806
DATA ITEMS CITED :
46
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C7-H12-O2
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
128.19
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
4OV1U1

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Open irritation test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
REFERENCE :
AMIHBC AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. (Chicago, IL) V.2-10, 1950-54. For publisher information, see AEHLAU. Volume(issue)/page/year: 4,119,1951
TYPE OF TEST :
Open irritation test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
REFERENCE :
UCDS** Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817) Volume(issue)/page/year: 4/5/1973
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
REFERENCE :
UCDS** Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817) Volume(issue)/page/year: 4/5/1973
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
REFERENCE :
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 Volume(issue)/page/year: -,370,1986 ** ACUTE TOXICITY DATA **
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
900 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
85GMAT "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982 Volume(issue)/page/year: -,28,1982
TYPE OF TEST :
LC50 - Lethal concentration, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
2730 ppm/4H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Sense Organs and Special Senses (Olfaction) - effect, not otherwise specified Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - effect, not otherwise specified Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - dyspnea
REFERENCE :
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76- Volume(issue)/page/year: 16,811,1985
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1700 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
PJPPAA Polish Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy. (ARS Polona, POB 1001, 00-068 Warsaw 1, Poland) V.25- 1973- Volume(issue)/page/year: 32,223,1980
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
550 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
AMPMAR Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.7- 1946- Volume(issue)/page/year: 36,58,1975
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
5880 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes
REFERENCE :
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI Volume(issue)/page/year: 25(11),57,1981
TYPE OF TEST :
LC50 - Lethal concentration, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
7800 mg/m3/2H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
85GMAT "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982 Volume(issue)/page/year: -,28,1982
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
200 mL/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - convulsions or effect on seizure threshold Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - respiratory stimulation
REFERENCE :
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. Volume(issue)/page/year: OTS05220809
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
2 mL/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. Volume(issue)/page/year: OTS0520808
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
2 mL/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959- Volume(issue)/page/year: 28,313,1974
TYPE OF TEST :
LC50 - Lethal concentration, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - species unspecified
DOSE/DURATION :
7800 mg/m3
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936- Volume(issue)/page/year: 51(5),61,1986 ** OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE TOXICITY DATA **
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
13650 mg/kg/13W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight
REFERENCE :
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981- Volume(issue)/page/year: 2,33,1982
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
211 ppm/6H/13W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - phosphatases Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
REFERENCE :
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. Volume(issue)/page/year: OTS0555423 ** REPRODUCTIVE DATA **
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
135 ppm/6H
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-15 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
REFERENCE :
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1981- Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,443,1983
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
135 ppm/6H
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-15 day(s) after conception
REFERENCE :
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. Volume(issue)/page/year: OTS0534614 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIH TLV-Not classifiable as a human carcinogen DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 ACGIH TLV-TWA 52 mg/m3 (10 ppm) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 IARC Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 39,67,1986 IARC Cancer Review:Human No Adequate Data IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 39,67,1986 IARC Cancer Review:Group 3 IMSUDL IARC Monographs, Supplement. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.1- 1979- Volume(issue)/page/year: 7,56,1987 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 11,141,1975 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-AUSTRALIA:TWA 10 ppm (55 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-AUSTRIA:TWA 10 ppm (55 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-BELGIUM:TWA 10 ppm (52 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 10 ppm (55 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-FINLAND:TWA 10 ppm (55 mg/m3);STEL 20 ppm (110 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 OEL-FRANCE:TWA 10 ppm (55 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-GERMANY:TWA 10 ppm (55 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-HUNGARY:TWA 20 mg/m3;STEL 40 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 10 ppm (55 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-RUSSIA:STEL 10 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWEDEN:TWA 10 ppm (50 mg/m3);STEL 15 ppm (80 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-SWITZERLAND:TWA 10 ppm (55 mg/m3);STEL 20 ppm (110 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 10 ppm (55 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO BUTYL ACRYLATE-air:10H TWA 10 ppm REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 84295 No. of Facilities: 2222 (estimated) No. of Industries: 28 No. of Occupations: 33 No. of Employees: 16374 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 84295 No. of Facilities: 2948 (estimated) No. of Industries: 33 No. of Occupations: 40 No. of Employees: 39848 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 6688 (estimated)

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